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5. What can I do about spasticity, spasms, and neuropathic pain?
Many people suffer from spasticity (increased tone), spasms (spontaneous movements), and neuropathic pain (in areas below the injury site where there sensory loss). Neurons that have lost their inputs tend to become hyperexcitable. Spasticity is the most common manifestation of spinal motoneurons that have been disconnected from the brain. Several treatments reduce spasticity. The most commonly used anti-spasticity drug is baclofen (a drug that stimulates GABA-B receptors in the spinal cord). Oral doses of baclofen of 80-120 mg/day reduce spasticity.  However, for some people such doses are not enough or have too many side effects.  For these people, it may be necessary to combine lower doses of baclofen with clonidine or tizanidine, which activate alpha-adrenergic receptors. While anti-spasticity drugs reduce spasticity, they also weaken muscles and may cause flaccidity and muscle atrophy. So, people should titrate the dose of anti-spasticity drugs so that they retain some muscle tone.  Unless they are taken in doses high enough to cause flaccidity, anti-spasticity drugs usually do not prevent spasms.  However, neurontin (gabapentin) and other anti-epileptic drug may reduce both spasms and neuropathic pain.  Neuropathic pain results from increased excitability of sensory neurons that have been disconnected and may manifest in “burning”, “freezing”, or “pressure” pain.  People accommodate to gabapentin and higher doses of as much as 4000 mg/day may be necessary for pain relief.  In some people, low doses (20 mg/day) of the tricyclic anti-depressant drug amitriptyline (Elavil) may provide relief from neuropathic pain.  Intrathecal delivery of these baclofen or morphine may be necessary.
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